The Impact of Title IX

“Femininity on the Line”, Psychology Today, August 1979.
“Femininity on the Line”, Psychology Today, August 1979.

Cultural changes precipitated by second-wave feminism boosted the popularity of women’s sports. However, opportunities and funding for men’s sports still far outweighed those for women. In 1972, Birch Bayh and Edith Green sponsored an amendment of the Education Acts that would ban discrimination based on sex in any program that receives federal funding. The amendment, known as “Title IX” was passed and signed into law by Richard Nixon. The amendment reads: 

“No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.” 

“Equal Opportunity in Intercollegiate Athletics”, pamphlet, c. 1990.

Though the amendment covers a wide range of programs, including the ways that sexual assault cases are handled in schools, one of the most far-reaching consequences was the addition of official women and girls’ sports teams to many high schools and universities across the country. 

“Two Little Words – Title Nine”, Kathleen Crouch, Atlanta Journal, Feberuary 17, 1975.
“Title IX and Sex Discrimination” pamphlet, August 1998.
“Title IX and Sex Discrimination” pamphlet, August 1998.
“Title IX Media Helper”, Reebok Pamphlet, May 6, 1997.

“Without that legislation being passed, I don’t think many opportunities are out there for women.”

Kelcey Roegiers, interviewed by Samantha Harvel, March 26, 2021

At Georgia State University, women’s basketball, soccer, tennis, and volleyball teams were added during the 1974-1975 school year. As recently as 2010, the championship-winning women’s beach volleyball team was added to GSU Athletics in order to maintain Title IX compliance after the addition of the football team. 

GSU Cheerleaders, Rampway, pg. 286, 1973.
Gymnastics athlete, Rampway, pg. 22, 1975.
Lady Panther basketball players, Rampway, pg. 200, 1976.
GSU Volleyball players, Rampway, pg. 281, 1977.
GSU softball players, Rampway, pg. 275, 1987.
Women’s intramural flag football, Rampway, pg. 275, 1987.
Lady Panther soccer, Rampway, pg. 116, 1995.
Beach volleyball players, The Signal, March 5, 2019.

“My experience as a student athlete was good. I appreciate the opportunities that the sport of basketball has given me and continues to give me, and the doors that it has opened up for me.” 
Kelcey Roegiers, interviewed by Samantha Harvel, March 26, 2021

Felt pennant “Georgia State Athletics”, undated.
Image depicting a female basketball player in Georgia State uniform, 1996.
Blue and white button, “Panther Pride”, undated.
“Barriers broken as women stay in first”, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Feberuary 18, 2003.