In 1952, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Department of the Interior established a Sanitarian Aide Program—the first hands-on public health program for American Indian communities.  Working with BIA, the Communicable Disease Center—as CDC was known at that time—led an eight-week training course attended by representatives from ten tribes. The curriculum included information about insect control, potable water supply, waste disposal, rabies control, plague control, community clean-up campaigns, and food sanitation.